Lead Me, I Dare You! Tied together by real-world "success stories" about school change and succinct leadership tips, the parctical advice in this book is supported by research and is presented in a conversational style. Tahun: Penerbit: Eye On Education. Bahasa: english. ISBN Baca buku online Send-to-Kindle or Email Please login to your account first. The file will be sent to your email address.
Lead Me, I Dare You!: Managing Resistance to School Change
It may take up to minutes before you receive it. The file will be sent to your Kindle account. It may takes up to minutes before you received it. Many of these women dropped right back out of the labor force when the men returned home from war to raise children born in the generation of the baby boomers. In the late s when women began entering the labor force in record numbers, they were entering in addition to all of the men, as opposed to substituting for men during the war.
This dynamic shift from the one-earner household to the two-earner household dramatically changed the socioeconomic class system of industrialised nations in the post-war period. The addition of women into the workforce was one of the key factors that has increased social mobility over the last 50 years, although this has stalled in recent decades for both genders. Female children of the middle and upper classes had increased access to higher education, and thanks to job equality, were able to attain higher-paying and higher-prestige jobs than ever before.
Due to the dramatic increase in availability of birth control , these high status women were able to delay marriage and child-bearing until they had completed their education and advanced their careers to their desired positions. In , the survey on sexual harassment at workplace conducted by women's nonprofit organisation Sakshi among 2, respondents in government and non-government sectors, in five states [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] recorded 53 percent saying that both sexes don't get equal opportunities, 50 percent of women are treated unfairly by employers and co-workers, 59 per cent have heard sexist remarks or jokes, and 32 percent have been exposed to pornography or literature degrading women.
In comparison with other sectors, IT organisations may be offering equal salaries to women, and the density of women in technology companies may be relatively high, but this does not necessarily ensure a level playing field. For example, Microsoft US was sued because of the conduct of one of its supervisors over e-mail.
The supervisor allegedly made sexually offensive comments via e-mail, such as referring to himself as "president of the amateur gynecology club. E-harassment is not the sole form of harassment.
In , Juno Online faced two separate suits from former employees who alleged that they were told that they would be fired if they broke off their ongoing relationships with senior executives. Pseudo Programs, a Manhattan-based Internet TV network, was sued in January after male employees referred to female employees as "bimbos" and forced them to look at sexually explicit material on the Internet.
In India, HR managers admit that women are discriminated against for senior Board positions and pregnant women are rarely given jobs but only in private. In addition to this, it has been suggested that there are fewer women in the IT sector due to existing stereotypes that depict the sector as male-orientated. Recognizing the invisible nature of power structures that marginalize women at the workplace, the Supreme Court in the landmark case Vaishaka versus High Court of Rajasthan identified sexual harassment as violative of the women's right to equality in the workplace and enlarged the ambit of its definition.
The judgment equates a hostile work environment on the same plane as a direct request for sexual favors. To quote: "Sexual harassment includes such unwelcome sexually determined behaviour whether directly or by implication as: physical contact and advances; a demand or request for sexual favours; sexually coloured remarks; showing pornography; any other unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature".
The judgement mandates appropriate work conditions should be provided for work, leisure, health, and hygiene to further ensure that there is no hostile environment towards women at the workplace and no woman employee should have reasonable grounds to believe that she is disadvantaged in connection with her employment. This law thus squarely shifts the onus onto the employer to ensure employee safety but most mid-sized Indian service technology companies are yet to enact sexual harassment policies.
When I point to the need for a sexual harassment policy, most tend to overlook or ignore it. It's not high on the agenda.
Earlier the draft proposal was rejected by the company. The lax attitudes transgress the Supreme Court judgment wherein the Court not only defined sexual harassment, but also laid down a code of conduct for workplaces to prevent and punish it, "Employers or other responsible authorities in public or private sectors must comply with the following guidelines: Express prohibition of sexual harassment should be notified and circulated;private employers should include prohibition of sexual harassment in the standing orders under the Industrial Employment Standing Orders Act, The complaint committee should include an NGO or other organization that is familiar with the issue of sexual harassment.
When the offense amounts to misconduct under service rules, appropriate disciplinary action should be initiated.
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When such conduct amounts to an offense under the Indian Penal Code, the employer shall initiate action by making a complaint with the appropriate authority. However, the survey by Sakshi revealed 58 per cent of women were not aware of the Supreme Court guidelines on the subject. A random survey by AssureConsulting. Surprisingly, certain HR managers were also ignorant of the Supreme Court guidelines or the Draft Bill by the National Commission of Women against sexual harassment at the workplace. Not surprisingly many cases go unreported.
However, given the complexities involved, company policy is the first step and cannot wish away the problem. Also the company will not tolerate any case that comes to its notice.
But the man at home is no different from the person at the office," thus implying the social mindset that discriminates against women is responsible for the problem. Considering sexual censorship and conservative social attitudes emphasizing "woman's purity," the victim dare not draw attention for fear of being branded a woman with "loose morals". Women would rather brush away the problem or leave jobs quietly rather than speak up, even in organizations that have a zero tolerance policy.
Says Chandan, "I do not have exact statistics but from my experience as an advocate one in 1, cases are reported. The social stigma against the victim and the prolonged litigation process for justice thwarts most women from raising their voice. Purports K Chandan "It may take between three and five years to settle a case, and in a situation where the harassment is covert, evidence is hard to gather and there is no guarantee that the ruling would be in favour of the victim.
In one of the rare cases I handled a Country Manager was accused and the plaintiff opted for an out of court settlement. Women in lower wage jobs are more likely to be subject to wage discrimination. They are more likely to bring home far less than their male counterparts with equal job status, and get far less help with housework from their husbands than the high-earning women. Women with low educational attainment entering the workforce in mass quantity lowered earnings for some men, as the women brought about a lot more job competition.
The lowered relative earnings of the men and increase in birth control made marriage prospects harder for lower income women. For the first time in the history of this country, [ which? Women who were now attaining high status jobs were attractive partners to men with high status jobs, so the high earners married the high earners and the low earners married the low earners. In other words, the rich got richer and the poor stayed the same, and have had increased difficulty competing in the economy. At 60 days or more, men and women were equal in terms of sick leave. The Family and Medical Leave Act of has allowed for workers to have up to 12 weeks a year to leave work.
Increased participation of women in the workforce is associated with decreased fertility. A cross-country panel study found this fertility factor effect to be strongest among women aged 20—39, but with a less strong but persistent effect among older women as well. However, for countries in the OECD area, increased female labor participation has been associated with an increased fertility. Causality analyses indicate that fertility rate influences female labor participation and not as much the other way around.
Regarding types of jobs, women who work in nurturing professions such as teaching and health generally have children at an earlier age. Women have worked at agricultural tasks since ancient times, and continue to do so around the world. The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries changed the nature of work in Europe and other countries of the Western world.
Working for a wage , and eventually a salary , became part of urban life.
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Initially, women were to be found doing even the hardest physical labor, including working as "hurriers" hauling heavy coal carts through mine shafts in Great Britain, a job that also employed many children. This ended after government intervention and the passing of the Mines and Collieries Act , an early attempt at regulating the workplace. During the 19th century, an increasing number of women in Western countries took jobs in factories, such as textile mills, or on assembly lines for machinery or other goods.
Women also worked as " hawkers " of produce, flowers, and other market goods, and bred small animals in the working-class areas of London. Piecework , which involved needlework weaving, embroidery, winding wool or silk that paid by the piece completed, was the most common employment for women in 19th century Great Britain.
It was poorly paid, and involved long hours, up to 14 hours per day to earn enough wages to survive. During the era before workers' compensation for disability or illness, the loss of a husband's wages could result in the entire family being sent to a Victorian workhouse to pay debts. Inequality in wages was to be expected for women.
In , the government found that the average weekly factory wage for a woman ranged from 11s 3d to 18s 8d, whereas a man's average weekly wage was around 25s 9d. Employers stated they preferred to hire women, because they could be "more easily induced to undergo severe bodily fatigue than men". Pregnant women worked up until the day they gave birth and returned to work as soon as they were physically able.
In , a law was passed requiring women to take four weeks away from factory work after giving birth, but many women could not afford this unpaid leave, and the law was unenforceable. The US Census was the first United States Census to count "females engaged in each occupation" and provides an intriguing snapshot of women's history.
Lead Me, I Dare You!: Managing Resistance to School Change
It reveals that, contrary to popular belief, not all American women of the 19th century were either idle in their middle-class homes or working in sweatshops. Two-thirds of teachers were women. In the beginning of the 20th century, women were regarded as society's guardians of morality; they were seen as possessing a finer nature than men and were expected to act as such. Women were expected to hold on to their innocence until the right man came along so that they can start a family and inculcate that morality they were in charge of preserving.
The role of men was to support the family financially. Women in North America and Western Europe were now becoming more and more educated, in no small part because of the efforts of pioneering women to further their own education, defying opposition by male educators.
Lead Me, I Dare You!: Managing Resistance to School Change - CRC Press Book
By , four out of five colleges accepted women and a whole coed concept was becoming more and more accepted. In the United States, World War I made space for women in the workforce, among other economical and social influences. Due to the rise in demand for production from Europe during the raging war, more women found themselves working outside the home.
In the first quarter of the century, women mostly occupied jobs in factory work or as domestic servants, but as the war came to an end they were able to move on to such jobs as: salespeople in department stores as well as clerical, secretarial and other, what were called, "lace-collar" jobs. World War II created millions of jobs for women.
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